Russia - Imperial Russia: Order of Saint Stanislaus 2nd Class Civil Division without Swords set of insignia comprising both the neck badge with length of original silk ribbon, and the breast star. Of superb quality, the neck badge is of gold and enamels, bearing 1896-1908 Kokoshnik mark ’56’ with Saint Petersburg mark, and ‘AK’ for Albert Keibel of Saint Petersburg; the breast star, bearing 1896-1903 Kokoshnik mark ’84’ with Saint Petersburg mark, and ‘Keibel’ for Albert Keibel of Saint Petersburg. The reverse of the tapered pin for the breast star is similarly marked.
Condition: Nearly Extremely Fine.
The Order of Saint Stanislaus was founded on 7th May 1765 by Stanislaus II, the last King of Poland. Stanislaus Augustus Poniatowsky thus wished to commemorate the Patron Saint of Poland, Saint Stanislaus of Cracow.
While between 1756 and 1758 he was Polish ambassador to Saint Petersburg Stanislaus managed to gain the favours of Empress Catherine II and with her influence and that of King Frederick II of Prussia secured his election to the Polish throne after the death in 1763 of King Augustus III. The new King sought in vain to bring to the Polish nation the reforms it so urgently required; the intrigues of Russia, Turkey and the great European powers were instrumental in creating widespread unrest in the country which led the Polish nobility declaring in 1770 King Stanislaus II deposed.
Russia, Austria and Prussia intervened, reinstating Stanislaus and in 1772 each country annexed large Polish territories: the first Polish partition had become a reality. The following years King Stanislaus was forced to preside over two further partitions of his country in 1793 and in 1795 and finally he had to abdicate and leave Poland into exile.
The Order of Saint Stanislaus passed through several phases before becoming a Russian Order in 1831, after the Polish rebellion of 1830 had been suppressed by the Russian Army.